Testicular Cancers

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.

Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35.

Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination.

Symptoms

In most cases, the patient finds the cancer himself. Sometimes, it is discovered by doctors during a routine physical exam. Anyone who notices anything unusual about their testicles should see a doctor, especially if they detect any of the following:

  • a lump or swelling in a testicle (painless)
  • pain in a testicle or scrotum
  • discomfort in a testicle or scrotum
  • a sensation of heaviness in the scrotum
  • a dull ache in the lower back
  • a dull ache in the groin
  • a dull ache in the abdomen
  • a sudden accumulation of fluid in the scrotum
  • unexplained tiredness or malaise.

Diagnosis

Blood tests

These measure levels of tumor markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, it is possible that blood tests come back normal, even though cancer is present.

Testicular ultrasound

An ultrasound of the scrotum can reveal the presence and also the size of a tumor.

Testicular biopsy

A small sample of tissue is taken from the targeted area in the testicle and examined under a microscope to determine whether the lump is malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous).

Testicular Cancers: Why Choose Udai Omni

  • Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words.

Testicular Cancers Treatment Options

Testicular cancer treatment has a success rate of about 95 percent – in other words, 95 percent of all testicular cancer patients who receive treatment make a full recovery. The sooner a patient is diagnosed and treated the better his prognosis is.

Treatment for testicular cancer may involve surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination.

Testicular cancer surgery

Orchiectomy

Orchiectomy is usually the first line of treatment. The testicle is surgically removed to prevent the tumor from spreading. If the patient is diagnosed and treated in stage 1, surgery may be the only treatment needed.

An orchiectomy is a straightforward operation. The patient receives a general anesthetic. A small incision is made in the groin, and the testicle is removed through the incision. The patient remains in hospital for a few days.

if the man still has one testicle after the operation, his sex life and chances of reproducing should not be affected.

Fertility

If after the operation, the patient has no testicles, he will be infertile. He will not be able to produce sperm.

Males who wish to have children one day should consider banking their sperm before the operation – some sperm is kept in a sperm-bank before the testicle or testicles are removed.

Other testicular cancer therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can also affect a cancer patient’s long-term fertility.

Lymph node surgery

If the cancer has reached the lymph nodes, they will need to be surgically removed. This usually involves the lymph nodes in the abdomen and chest. Sometimes lymph node surgery can result in infertility.

Radiation therapy (radiotherapy)

Radiotherapy involves the use of beams of high-energy X-rays or particles (radiation) to destroy cancer cells. Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA inside the tumor cells, destroying their ability to reproduce.

Patients with seminoma testicular cancer will typically require radiotherapy as well as surgery. The radiotherapy is used to prevent cancer recurrence.

Patients whose cancer has spread to their lymph nodes will need radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may cause the following temporary side effects:

  • tiredness
  • rashes
  • muscle stiffness
  • joint stiffness
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of chemicals (medication) to destroy cancer cells. Cytotoxic medication prevents cancer cells from dividing and growing.

Chemotherapy is usually given to patients with advanced testicular cancer – cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Treatment is administered either orally (tablets by mouth) or injection. As chemotherapy attacks healthy cells as well as cancerous ones, the patient may experience the following temporary side effects:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • hair loss
  • mouth sores
  • tiredness
  • malaise

Most people immediately link chemotherapy with uncomfortable side effects. However, side-effect management has improved considerably over the last 20 years.

ved prakash

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