Bladder Cancers

Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers, affecting approximately 68,000 adults in the United States each year. Bladder cancer occurs in men more frequently than it does in women and usually affects older adults, though it can happen at any age.

Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder — the hollow, muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Although it’s most common in the bladder, this same type of cancer can occur in other parts of the urinary tract drainage system.

About seven out of every 10 bladder cancers diagnosed start out at an early stage — when bladder cancer is highly treatable. However, even early-stage bladder cancer may recur in the bladder. For this reason, people with bladder cancer typically need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that recurs or advances to a higher stage.

Symptoms

Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include:

  • Blood in urine (hematuria)
  • Painful urination
  • Pelvic pain

If you have hematuria, your urine may appear bright red or cola colored. Sometimes, urine may not look any different, but blood in urine may be detected during a microscopic exam of the urine.

People with bladder cancer might also experience:

  • Back pain
  • Frequent urination

But, these symptoms often occur because of something other than bladder cancer.

Causes

Bladder cancer develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally. Rather than grow and divide in an orderly way, these cells develop mutations that cause them to grow out of control and not die. These abnormal cells form a tumor.

Causes of bladder cancer include:

  • Smoking and other tobacco use
  • Exposure to chemicals, especially working in a job that requires exposure to chemicals
  • Past radiation exposure
  • Chronic irritation of the lining of the bladder
  • Parasitic infections, especially in people who are from or have traveled to certain areas outside the United States
    It’s not always clear what causes bladder cancer, and some people with bladder cancer have no obvious risk factors.

Types of bladder cancer

Different types of cells in your bladder can become cancerous. The type of bladder cell where cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer. The type of bladder cancer determines which treatments may work best for you.

Types of bladder cancer include:

Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma, previously called transitional cell carcinoma, occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells expand when your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty. These same cells line the inside of the ureters and the urethra, and tumors can form in those places as well. Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer in the United States.

Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder, for instance from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is rare in the United States. It’s more common in parts of the world where a certain parasitic infection (schistosomiasis) is a common cause of bladder infections.

Adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that make up mucus-secreting glands in the bladder. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is rare in the United States.

Some bladder cancers include more than one type of cell.

Diagnosis

Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include:

  • Cystoscopy. To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small, narrow tube (cystoscope) through the urethra. The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder, to examine these structures for signs of disease.
  • Biopsy. During cystoscopy, your doctor may pass a special tool through the scope and into your bladder to collect a cell sample (biopsy) for testing. This procedure is sometimes called transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). TURBT can also be used to treat bladder cancer.
  • Urine cytology. A sample of your urine is analyzed under a microscope to check for cancer cells in a procedure called urine cytology.
  • Imaging tests. Imaging tests, such as computerized tomography (CT) urogram or retrograde pyelogram, allow your doctor to examine the structures of your urinary tract.

Bladder Cancers: Why Choose Udai Omni

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  • Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words.

Bladder Cancers Treatment Options

Treatment options for bladder cancer depend on a number of factors, including the type of cancer, grade of the cancer and stage of the cancer, which are taken into consideration along with your overall health and your treatment preferences.

Bladder cancer treatment may include:

  • Surgery, to remove cancerous tissue
  • Chemotherapy in the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy), to treat tumors that are confined to the lining of the bladder but have a high risk of recurrence or progression to a higher stage
  • Reconstruction, to create a new way for urine to exit the body after bladder removal
  • Chemotherapy for the whole body (systemic chemotherapy), to increase the chance for a cure in a person having surgery to remove the bladder, or as a primary treatment in cases where surgery isn’t an option
  • Radiation therapy, to destroy cancer cells, often as a primary treatment in cases where surgery isn’t an option or isn’t desired
  • Immunotherapy, to trigger the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells, either in the bladder or throughout the body

A combination of treatment approaches may be recommended by your doctor and members of your care team.

ved prakash

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